Call for new global food system
PUBLISHED: 11:52 29 December 2008 | UPDATED: 08:29 28 March 2014
DECEMBER 28, 2008: A new approach is needed to build sustainable global food systems in the 21st century, says a leading expert.
Professor Tim Lang warns that the current system, designed in the 1940s, is showing "structural failures", such as "astronomic" environmental
The new approach needs to address key fundamentals like biodiversity, energy, water and urbanisation, he added.
Professor Lang is a member of the UK government's newly formed Food Council.
"Essentially, what we are dealing with at the moment is a food system that was laid down in the 1940s," he told BBC News.
"It followed on from the dust bowl in the US, the collapse of food production in Europe and starvation in Asia.
"At the time, there was clear evidence showing that there was a mismatch between producers and the need of consumers."
Professor Lang, from City University, London, added that during
the post-war period, food scientists and policymakers also thought
increasing production would reduce the cost of food, while improving
people's diets and public health.
"But by the 1970s, evidence was beginning to emerge that the public health outcomes were not quite as expected," he explained.
"Secondly, there were a whole new set of problems associated with the environment."
Thirty years on and the world was now facing an even more complex situation, he added.
"The level of growth in food production per capita is dropping
off, even dropping, and we have got huge problems ahead with an
explosion in human population."
Professor Lang lists a series of "new fundamentals" which will shape future food production, including:
- Oil and energy: "We have an entirely oil-based food economy,
and yet oil is running out. The impact of that on agriculture is one of
the drivers of the volatility in the world food commodity markets."
- Water scarcity: "One of the key things that I have been
pushing is to get the UK government to start auditing food by water,"
Professor Lang said, adding that 50% of the UK's vegetables are
imported, many from water-stressed nations.
- Biodiversity: "Biodiversity must not just be protected, it
must be replaced and enhanced; but that is going to require a very
different way growing food and using the land."
- Urbanisation: "Probably the most important thing within the
social sphere. More people now live in towns than in the countryside.
In which case, where do they get their food?"
Professor Lang said that in order to feed a projected nine billion
people by 2050, policymakers and scientists face a fundamental
challenge: how can food systems work with the planet and biodiversity,
rather than raiding and pillaging it?
The UK's Environment Secretary, Hilary Benn, recently set up a
Council of Food Policy Advisers in order to address the growing concern
of food security and rising prices.
Mr Benn, speaking at the council's launch, warned: "Global food production will need to double just to meet demand.
"We have the knowledge and the technology to do this, as things
stand, but the perfect storm of climate change, environmental
degradation and water and oil scarcity, threatens our ability to
Professor Lang, who is a member of the council, offered a
suggestion: "We are going to have to get biodiversity into gardens and
fields, and then eat it.
"We have to do this rather than saying that biodiversity is what is on the edge of the field or just outside my garden."
Professor Lang outlined the challenges facing the global food
supply system: "The 21st Century is going to have to produce a new diet
for people, more sustainably, and in a way that feeds more people more
equitably using less land."